Category Archives: Fieldwork
20 Jan 2017
Today, we were accompanied by Felipe Velasco again, although this time instead of driving south toward Lake Tota we headed northeast toward the town of Mongua. We are extremely grateful for the time that Felipe has devoted to our efforts, as we would have had a difficult time finding these sites without him and it was reassuring to have a local person along. Our goal today was to explore and hopefully collect a core from Laguna Negra, a lake located in a different sort of paramo ecosystem. The drive was quite different than previous days, because we were able to see a much more industrial area of Boyaca. Between the cement factories and the steel mill, the pollution levels were quite high; in fact, much of the drive to Mongua smelled of a fragrant mixture of burning coal and diesel, and when we ascended the mountain above Mongua we observed a thick layer of smog in the valley. However, it was fascinating to see a fully functional steel mill, as gave me an appreciation of what Bethlehem Steel in Pennsylvania must have been like when it was operational. We observed many small family-owned coal mines along the road near Mongua, as this is the primary economic activity in this region.
Laguna Negra and the surrounding landscape was spectacular, and pictures really can’t convey the natural beauty of this place. While Jason and Jaime took measurements of the depth profile of the lake, I had the opportunity to hike around the lake margin. Unlike other lakes that we have visited, the lake margin was not peatland. Hypericum (St. John’s Wort) was common along the lake edge, along with a number of Carex species, and bright red Azolla grew in the littoral zone along with submerged aquatic plants like Myriophyllum. Inflow into the lake comes in the form of a spectacular waterfall, with abundant mosses and ferns growing adjacent to the waterfall in the perpetually humid environment.
The lake was about 9 meters deep with at least 3 meters of sediment, so we inflated a second boat, set our anchors, and commenced sediment coring. Mark Brenner and Felipe Velasco observed from shore, taking pictures of the coring process. We obtained several meters of mud, and once again we carefully kept the upper drive containing the mud-water interface upright on the trip back to Finca SanPedro.
On our way home we stopped in Mongua for some delicious empanadas and then went further down the road to Tópaga to take a look at the church on the main square. The Tópaga church is over 400 years old, and the inside is ornately decorated in gold. Colombia has abundant gold; in fact the yellow in the Colombian flag symbolizes the tremendous gold resources. This church in Tópaga is also probably one of the few churches that not only has artwork incorporating Jesus, the disciples, and other typical biblical representations, but also the devil. Yes, Lucifer himself is on a beam in the ceiling near the front of the church, directly center.
Our fieldwork is now complete. Tomorrow we will ship samples and cores from Sogamoso and then drive down to Bogota to pick up samples from our work in Manizales and prepare to depart on Sunday. This trip has been an amazing experience, and I feel extremely lucky to have had the opportunity to explore this fascinating country and see its amazing natural beauty. I am excited about this new collaboration, and the potential to develop long-term perspectives on water availability and ecology of the critically important paramo regions.
I sincerely thank Jaime Escobar for making this all happen. And I especially thank him for the doing all the driving!
18 January 2017
We traveled back up to Aquitania Lake today, managing to navigate back to it without the help of Felipe. We spent the day successfully collecting the full sediment record from the lake, over 7 meters of mud. While Mark, Jason, and Jaime did the coring, I collected plenty of surface samples from the surrounding peatland. Part way through the coring, we had a Colombian visitor who came to the lake on his horse to ask us what we were up to. He seemed amused by our activities. Not wanting to strap all the PVC and wood back onto the car, we offered it to him. He was thrilled to take it, and we gave him rope so that he could strap it all together and then tie it to his horse. I was really impressed with his rope tying ability, and although the horse did not seem particularly happy about the situation, it carried all the pipe and wood away.
Anyone know what kind of bird is in the video below? A sandpiper of some sort?
A collage of some of the interesting plants observed around the margin of the lake:
After a quick dinner in Sogamoso, we returned to Finca SanPedro where Mark Brenner gave a public talk highlighting the paleoclimate work that he has conducted with Jaime, Jason, and others in Latin America. Impressively, Mark gave the talk in both English and Spanish! I’m really going to have to learn some Spanish before my next trip to Colombia.
17 Jan 2017
It was dark when we arrived last night, so we didn’t have a chance to really see the beautiful Finca SanPedro Hostel. The house has a number of nice rooms for guests and the grounds were beautifully planted and maintained. Chickens, peacocks, vegetable gardens, a yoga studio, and four friendly dogs all added to the charm.
Felipe Velasco, director of the Foundation Montecito, graciously agreed to take us to a small lake in the paramo above Lake Tota. Our goal was to assess the potential of the lake for sediment coring, and potentially collect more surface samples from the associated wetlands. However, before embarking on our trip we needed to purchase a few more supplies from a local hardware store in Sogamoso, including some PVC pipe and some wooden boards to secure our inflatable boats together for a coring platform. The folks at the hardware store were fantastic, providing supplies and assistance as we mounted the pipe and boards on top of our car. Furthermore, about half way through the process, they provided us with free coffee and delicious empanadas. And they gave us free hats and windbreakers with their logo! As Jason commented, “it is strange that the best empanadas I’ve had were from a hardware store.”
The drive to the paramo took about an hour and half, but along the way we got see Lake Tota and the town of Aquitania. Lake Tota is the largest natural lake in Colombia and lies at an elevation of about 10,000 feet. As we crossed into the lake’s watershed, we were immediately hit by the smell of onions. Most of the area around the lake and the surrounding hillslope is covered in onions; in fact, according to Felipe, the area produces more than 90% of the onions consumed in Colombia. The lake is also used for fish aquaculture, and along with fertilizer runoff from the onion farms, environmental degradation of the lake is of considerable concern. Apparently for every ton of chicken poop that comes in by truck, a ton of onions goes out.
Furthermore, the introduction of rainbow trout into Lake Tota likely led to considerable changes in food-web structure, and the extinction of a species of catfish, known as greasefish (Rhizosomichthys totae) that was endemic to the lake. An all to common story: invasive species + human impacts like eutrophication = extinction.
The town of Aquitania borders the lake, and we had to weave our way through it to reach a steep dirt road that led up into the paramo. A small town with obvious economic hardship, the central square of Aquitania is dominated by the church like in many of the small Colombian towns that we have seen. On top of the church is a large statue of Jesus standing on a boat, although because the boat is small it looks like Jesus is surfing. The road up into the paramo was in bad shape so we went slow, but we eventually arrived at the small lake that we hoped to reach.
Lake Aquitania, as we called it, was beautiful. Surrounded by paramo, including lots of frailejón (Espeletia sp.), the lake is bordered by extensive wetland in places. Several nearby depressions also contain wetlands. After inflating a boat, Jason and Jaime used a sonar depth finder to quickly determine the depth of the lake. Although the lake is relatively shallow throughout (~40 cm), there was over 7 meters of sediment! Mark, Jaime, and Jason spent a few hours collecting a surface core to carefully capture the mud-water interface, and I spent the time collecting surface samples from the adjacent wetlands. We then returned back to Sogamoso while Mark held the core upright, partially sticking out of the car window, and upon returning we extruded the core centimeter by centimeter into bags. Tomorrow we will return to collect the full sediment core, as well as additional surface samples from wetlands surrounding the lake.
16 January 2017
Today was a very long day of travel. We were supposed to fly from Manizales to Bogota, pick up the lake coring equipment that we left there, and then drive about 3.5 hours northeast to the city of Sogamoso. However, after spending a couple hours waiting for our plane to arrive, our flight was cancelled. The weather didn’t seem particularly bad, but the Manizales airport closed. Apparently it closes about 50% of the time. Perhaps it was ash from the volcano?
The airline provided a bus to transport passengers to Pereira, the nearest place with an airport, and we were rebooked on a flight to Bogota from there. Having seen the public bus passing cars on the winding road up the mountains from Manizales a couple days ago, I was a bit nervous about the bus trip. However, the ride was uneventful and we arrived in Pereira in about an hour and a half. We observed endless coffee fields on the drive, and given that Pereira is only at about 1000 meters in elevation, the temperature was considerably warmer when we arrived at the airport.
We arrived in Bogota about 5 hours later than we had scheduled. Unfortunately, the truck that we had reserved at the Bogota airport was not available because it was wrecked in a crash by the previous renter. I can’t say that I was surprised. So we rented an SUV instead, a Toyota Fortuner which I had never heard of, and once we loaded the coring equipment there was very little room left for passengers. However, we all squeezed in and headed out into the rush hour traffic of Bogota. Lots of public diesel buses made for pretty bad pollution. However, we made it to Sogamoso in reasonable time, stopping along the way for a tamal and flatbread for dinner, and arrived at our hostel a little after 10 pm – about 14 hours of traveling. I was tired, but excited to see a new paramo ecosystem.
15 Jan 2017
Today we visited the Tacurrumby – Laguna Negra Nature Reserve, which was located very close to the peatland we sampled yesterday. Felipe Vallejo of the Unversidad of Caldas accompanied us, and he was nice enough to secure permission for us to sample within the reserve. Felipe may also analyze diatoms (a group of algae with cell walls made of silica) in the surface samples that we are collecting, as just like testate amoebae they have been little studied in paramo ecosystems.
The painting on the trailhead sign at the nature reserve showed a ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), although from what I can find there is a fair amount of taxonomic uncertainty with species and subspecies identification (see wikipedia). There appears to be at least two subspecies, and some regard these as different species, the North American ruddy duck (O. jamaicensis jamaicensis) and the Andean ruddy duck (O. jamaicensis ferruginea). Other than differences in geographic distribution, the Andean ruddy has a completely black head whereas the North American ruddy white has a white face. Interestingly, the painting on the trailhead sign shows a white face, which seems to be consistent with the North American species. However, according to some there may also be a Colombian subspecies (O. jamaicensis andina) with some black coloration on the white face; however, these individuals may also just represent hybrids between the North American and Andean subspecies. And the painting on the sign doesn’t show any black coloration within the white face. Regardless, the Colombia population of ruddy ducks (O. jamaicensis ferruginea/andina) has declined over the past several decades, and according to the sign they are likely headed toward extinction here.
As we walked along the trail to the lake, we observed signs identifying some of the dominant plant and bird species, as well as highlighting the ecological value of the lake and associated wetland. The plant diversity was impressive, with large grass tussocks and many shrub species.
Upon reaching the lake we immediately spotted the bright blue bill of the flagship ruddy duck as advertised on the trailhead sign! However, unlike the painting the male duck’s head was completely black, consistent with the Andean ruddy duck, as one would expect here. Shortly thereafter we spotted a female Andean ruddy duck and a duckling! Add one more to the population size in Colombia.
After collecting surface samples, we drove up into the Nevado del Ruiz National Park to look for potential future research sites. After this excursion, we sampled another peatland located at a bit lower elevation than Laguna Negra. Over 70 samples collected so far!
13 Jan 2017
After arriving in Bogota late last night, I awoke to sunshine and the sounds of traffic this morning. In addition to myself and Jaime Escobar, our crew includes Mark Brenner and Jason Curtis from the University Florida, who are here to collect lake-sediment cores from high-elevation lakes in the paramo. After a breakfast of eggs, fresh fruit, and good coffee we took a taxi across Bogota to a place where we could store the lake coring equipment, as we won’t need it until next week.
My first impression of Bogota was that driving in this city of 9 million people is a
terrifying thrilling experience. Although lanes may or may not be marked, any lane delineation is clearly just a suggestion. Vehicles seem to drive wherever they please, weaving in and out of traffic while motorcycles (and there are a lot of them) drive between the cars and trucks. The roads twisted and turned and I felt like we were driving in circles at times, even when we weren’t navigating the traffic-merging madness of a roundabout. Jugglers and dancers performed at some of the stoplights, and I couldn’t help but admire them for their bravery, as pedestrians do not appear to have the right-of-way. The one piece of advice I received before coming to Colombia was not to drive, and this was definitely excellent advice.
In the early afternoon we flew from Bogota west to Manizales, which is a city of about 400,000 people. The view of the Colombian landscape was fantastic, with mountains covered in coffee and plantains. Coffee is planted even on the very steep slopes. The flight was a bit bumpy as we dropped into Manizales, and I was glad that I only had a muffin for lunch.
Our hotel was just outside the city and was very nice with beautiful gardens, wetlands, and a fenced area with several ostriches and a deer. The hotel property backed up against a nature reserve, and the diversity of rain forest vegetation and birds was impressive. I wished I had been able to fit my binoculars into my luggage! It was fun to see a number of floating plants and floating-leaved plants that my EES-386 students will soon know, including abundant Azolla, Salvinia, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), and water lilies (Nymphaea sp.). Some pictures of the hotel ground are below.
We then drove into Manizales to meet with scientists in the Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas at the University of Caldas. We had a tour of their labs and facilities, and discussed our plans for exploration of the paramo tomorrow. Several of the geologists will join us in the field.
12 Jan 2017
As I write this, I am flying above the Florida Everglades at night. The contrast between the Miami-Fort Lauderdale region and the adjacent Florida Everglades is quite striking – lines and lines of bright lights to the east and nothing but darkness to the west. Although a century of degradation has led to the largest restoration effort ever attempted, you still have to admire the resistance of this large wetland to human pressure. Shortly, we will continue southward over the Atlantic on our way to South America…
I am on my way to Bogota, Colombia to initiate and develop a new collaboration focused on better understanding the long-term hydrological and ecological history of high-elevation Andean ecosystems. My primary collaborator is Jaime Escobar of the Universidad del Norte in Barranquilla. Our focus is on the paramo, an extremely biodiverse ecosystem (one of 25 global biodiversity hotspots) located above the tree line and below the permanent snowline in the Andes of tropical South America and the highlands of Costa Rica. Up to 60% of its plant species are endemic, which means they are found nowhere else in the world. Together with the surrounding Andean forest the region is home to 50% of the plant diversity found in mountain ecosystems. In addition to its high conservation value, the paramo and its watersheds store and supply critical water resources to major Andean rivers and cities. High-altitude tropical ecosystems such as the paramo are expected to experience very high rates of temperature change in the coming decades, with stronger and longer dry seasons, yet little is known about the how the hydrology and ecology of these ecosystems may respond to these anticipated changes.
This new collaboration will focus on understanding the ecological and hydrological sensitivity of paramo ecosystems and their watersheds through investigating the long-term environmental history of the region. Lakes and peatlands are scattered across the paramo, and they preserve records of past ecological and hydrological history in their sediments and deposits. The long-term perspectives provided by these paleoenvironmental reconstructions will potentially help assess climate model projections, anticipate climate-induced ecological and hydrological impacts, and assist in risk assessment and adaptive management efforts. For the next ten days we will explore the paramo, collecting ecological and paleoecological samples and discussing ideas to further develop our research and educational collaboration. I’ll be posting updates and pictures as our adventure proceeds…
Back in June an alligator was found in the Lehigh Canal. Apparently it wasn’t the first one found in the broader Lehigh Valley.
But perhaps just as surprising are a couple of potentially new plant arrivals. Or are they just summer visitors? Last week I noticed sizable populations of two aquatic plant species, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), in the canal at Sand Island in Bethlehem. Both of these species float unattached on the water surface, like the more common duckweeds, and they often grow in dense mats that make fishing and boating difficult, crowd out other plant species, and alter water chemistry and light penetration. To my knowledge, neither species is confirmed to occur naturalized in Pennsylvania but it is not uncommon to see them cultivated in backyard ponds (USDA Plants: water hyacinth, water lettuce).
The populations of water lettuce and water hyacinth in the Lehigh Canal consist of scattered colonies extending from about the Hill-to-Hill Bridge (Route 378) east past the New Street Bridge (Fahy Bridge), to about the point where the Sand Island Trail meets the towpath (D&L Trail). The total distance is about a half mile. The water lettuce appears to cover a slightly greater distance than the water hyacinth, and the plants are generally smaller in height as you head east (downstream) from the Main Street Bridge.
Water lettuce and water hyacinth are tropical or subtropical in origin. The two species have dramatically expanded their range in warmer regions in recent years, where they have cause considerable ecological and recreational impacts. However, given that both species are sensitive to freezing temperatures, they have not not been regarded as major threats in the Northeast. However, some uncertainty about this assumption has emerged in the last several years. For example, a few years ago populations were found in the lower Great Lakes (Adebayo et al. 2010), and resurveys found both species in three subsequent years (Maclsaac et al. 2016), raising concerns about the potential for the establishment of persistent populations in more northerly locations. Although freezing typically kills individuals of both species they can produce seeds that survive cold temperatures; in fact, water lettuce seeds can still be viable after a few weeks in solid ice (Pieterse et al. 1981). Maclsaac et al. (2016) suggested that the two species likely persist in the lower Great Lakes due to annual reintroductions by humans (both species are sold for ponds/aquariums), but also noted that at least in the case of water hyacinth, seasonal regeneration from viable seeds may be occurring.
For background, the Lehigh Canal was built in 1827 to transport anthracite coal from the upper Lehigh Valley, and it remained in operation until the early 1940s. Heavy transportation and industrial activity along the canal and river corridor, as well the development of the surrounding Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton region led to numerous environmental problems, including pollution, habitat degradation, the spread of invasive species, and eutrophication of the canal. However, the towpath along the canal is now a natural-area corridor and the old towpath is a great place to bike, run, hike, fish, bird, and observe nature from within the urban and suburban matrix of the Lehigh Valley. Near Sand Island in Bethlehem, the canal itself gets pretty green by mid-summer, as the slow-moving water warms and algae proliferate. Invasive eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and curly-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus) are common submerged plants within the canal, and provide a favorable substrate for filamentous algae. The habitat is ideal for water lettuce and water hyacinth, except for the fact that it freezes in the winter.
Have these species been in the canal in previous summers? Are these populations persisting, or did this expansion occur just this year? Perhaps the two species came into the canal with the pet alligator 🙂 Although this was the first time I noticed the two floating species, I don’t frequent this particular area of the towpath often. Will they reemerge next summer? Are they producing viable seed? Lots of questions, and certainly something to watch. The observations have been submitted to iMap Invasives, a database of invasive species.
Of course, floating plants are also very good at moving. Maybe not as fast as an alligator, but fast enough for me to watch a cluster of water lettuce floating down the canal. Perhaps on its way to Easton?
Adebayo, A., E. Briski, O. Kalaci, M. Hernandez, S. Ghabooli, B. Beric, F. Chan, A. Zhan, E. Fifield, T. Leadley, and H. MacIsaac. 2011. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) in the Great Lakes: playing with fire? Aquatic Invasions 6: 91-96. DOI 10.3391/ai.2011.6.1.11.
MacIsaac, H.J., A.P. Eyraud, B. Beric, and S. Ghabooli. 2016. Can tropical macrophytes establish in the Laurentian Great Lakes? Hydrobiologia 767: 165-174. doi:10.1007/s10750-015-2491-y
Pieterse, A. H., L. Delange, and L. Verhagen. 1981. A study on certain aspects of seed germination and growth of Pistia stratiotes L., Acta Botanica Neerlandica 30: 47–57. doi:10.1111/j.1438-8677.1981.tb00386.x